Society and Religion Assignment Code: ESO-15/AST/TMA/2017-2018 Questions Solved In Assignment: Explain the intellectualist theories of religion. Religions are attempts to allay guilt by deferred obedience to the father. Though the polemical inspiration for theories of religion has receded in many quarters, one can nevertheless profitably make a heuristic distinction between humanistic theories of religion and religious theories of religion. Compare and contrast between Bhakti and Sufism. He argues that societies with relatively stable patterns of social organization and relatively poor means of technological control draw on social analogies in constructing their theories because for them the social world represents predictability. new haven, conn.: yale university press, 1987. proudfoot, wayne. Durkheim argues that the members of a society objectify and project outside their minds the feelings that the social collectivity inspires in them. willard trask. Hume's theory explains religion in intellectual terms: as an account of the unknown causes at work in the natural and social worlds. We have no means to know if this or something else is what was actually thought by the primitives. In the light of social evolutionary models of human development, religious practice was perceived as providing a powerful index of the mental and moral levels of so-called primitive peoples. moscow: progress, 1957. muller, f. max. Sometimes they heedlessly suppose that the (putative) benefits maintain the beliefs or practices. Robin Horton, for example, in a series of essays spanning thirty years (and collected in 1993) argues for an intellectualist explanation of religion. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. As a result, he referred to it as the ‘bastard sister of Science’. : university of notre dame press, 1981. tylor, edward. Intellectualism, however, appears to be not only questionable but irrelevant. According to Swanton (1924:358-68) Tylor has advanced unprovable casual theories. In his opinion from a dependence on Magic, one would turn to Religion and then eventually to Scientific thinking. See also Freud, Sigmund; Hume, David; Mysticism; Neurotheology; Sociology. Hence, when the tribals want rain they go to hill top, sacrifice a small animal and throw down rocks and stones from the mountainside. The Soul theory of Tylor has elements of the sacred and the supernatural. Share Your Essays.com is the home of thousands of essays published by experts like you! Schleiermacher's religious approach to religion influenced later theory as much as Hume's humanistic one. Rituals, meant to strengthen society's relationship to the sacred, strengthen society. Privacy Policy3. Only a standpoint that abstracts from contested religious criteria could resolve such a dispute. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. Religion is solely the creation of the scholar's study. Whereas Hume deems belief in invisible, human-like beings to be the hallmark of religion, Durkheim argues that the category of religion includes systems without spiritual beings (or, at least, systems like Buddhism, where spiritual beings possess, he claims, only minor importance). Like Hume, they believe that religion derives from more fundamental human propensities and predispositions. ." The motivation to interpret religious beliefs symbolically derives, he argues, from liberal scruples about attributing massive error to so-called primitives. Unlike science, however, which employs impersonal processes and entities as its explanatory idiom, religion employs personal forces and entities. Although the believer understands them literally, religious beliefs and practices are fundamentally not attempts at explanation, prediction, and control. ." Religion, they contend, is a by-product of evolved cognitive biases. (i) According to intellectualism, deliberately choosing which beliefs to hold is practically impossible. In religion is that each stage is built on the other till monotheism. berkeley: university of california press, 1985. schleiermacher, friedrich. He argued that belief in mana had both historical and theoretical priority. Like the concept of religion itself, it is the product of, among other influences, the Age of Exploration and Empire (fifteenth and sixteenth centuries), the Protestant Reformation (sixteenth century), and the Augustan Age (eighteenth century). Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). "magical hair." new york: norton, 1975. geertz, clifford. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ideas about the origin and development of religion were initially based on the reports of missionaries and adventures about the nature of religion among the primitives. When Magic and associated Rituals failed, primitive people’s thoughts, turned to the possibility of a far greater force in the world of nature. They build on each other. james strachey. In this last judgment Hume attends to the extraordinary diversity of religious beliefs. The term invisible religion was introduced by the German sociologist Thomas Luckmann and became widespread following the publica…, Since the early 1900s anthropologists have been conducting field research to retrieve, record, classify, and interpret religious beliefs and practice…, Religiosity In Hume's naturalistic anthropology, religious principles are derivative. Durkheim argues that religion persists because it satisfies social needs. As early as 1799, however, an alternative explanation of religion emerges. new york: basic books, 1973. guthrie, stewart. Dream Theory of Religion the theory that states that humans used the existence of dreams, in which a person could leave the body and dead spirits could appear, as an indication that the soul could exist apart from the body. The comparative study of religion formed a central building block of anthropology as the discipline emerged in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. the meaning and end of religion (1962). Section 2. This may well be correct. cambridge, uk: cambridge university press, 1990. leach, edmund. new york: harper, 1957. fraser, james. london: athlone, 1954. leach, edmund. The social function of religion manifests itself as it “serves as the carrier of social sentiments providing symbols and rituals that enable people to express the deep…show more content… By repression Freud meant that civilized society demands that we not fulfill all our desires immediately, but that they have to be repressed. Robin Horton (the first man who wrote the article in April of 1971), basically introduces what he calls the “Intellectualist Theory”. These features, together with the all-encompassing nature of their theories and the reverence accorded to the founders and the founding texts, leads some critics to liken Marxism and psychoanalysis to religions. For example, Depresses (1760) advanced a theory that religion had its origin in fetishism (belief in magical fetishes or objects): The Portuguese sailors had 30 reported that the coastal Negro tribes of West Africa worshipped inanimate things and animals. Ultimately, he ventures the humanistic hypothesis that the subconscious explains the experiences he describes, but he countenances religious theory by allowing that a religious reality could work through the subconscious. An evolutionary theory is the development of one species is the basis of their predecessor. rethinking religion: connecting cognition and culture. The theoretical study of religion emerged in the eighteenth century. Early cognitive theorists of religion: Robin Horton and his predecessors primitive culture. first principles. Early human beings were unable to understand or explain the world of nature. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Two features of Durkheim's theory influenced later twentieth-century theories profoundly. The primitives do not, for good reasons, see the futility of Magic. They fix the feelings on some object, which thereby becomes sacred. notre dame, ind. These mental subsystems produce a set of intuitive default expectations concerning members of the category. Humanistic theories explain religion in terms of the humans who create or subscribe to them. He describes a primal crime in which jealous sons kill and devour their father. Tylor’s definition of Religion is that Religion originated from a belief in spiritual beings. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. So in a sense, Africa becomes a good place to look at how traditional religion adapts or responds to the coming in of monotheistic religion. Publish your original essays now. Religion came to be viewed as a discreet domain of culture, distinct from morality, and ranged alongside law, science, politics, and art. Myths nevertheless metaphorically express the experience of the infinite. James Frazer’s The Golden Bough, first published in 1890, traced magical and religious threads throughout history and weaved them into a pattern depicting the p… In The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), he argues that various inarticulate feelings of the presence or reality of an unseen something more that is congruent with human interests explain religion. In his pithy phrase, "Ignorance is the mother of devotion" (p. 75). Finally, Christians assimilated Greek mythology to biblical history by arguing that the Greek gods were actually demons, that the Greek myths were actually biblical stories about biblical characters but were corrupted through transmission, or that the Greek myths were allegories representing biblical or Christian virtues. This article presents Tylor's main theories in the field of anthropology, especially as presented in his four published books, the most famous of which is Primitive Culture, and in the manuscript sources for his last, unpublished, one on ‘The natural history of religion’. If God is conceived as love, for example, humanity must come to see that love, as an essential component of human nature, is divine. The extraordinary plasticity of their interpretive principles renders their systems virtually invulnerable to counter-evidence. In the service of religious polemic, early modern thinkers devised canons of inquiry and argument that were independent of religious presuppositions. new york: penguin, 1984. andresen, jensine. Later, Victorian anthropologists like Edward Tyler, James Frazer, and Herbert Spencer likewise adopt a fundamentally intellectualist explanation of religion. Prevalent in biology, functional explanations explain something by its function, or what it does. He distinguished between two types of Magic practiced by primitive people. patterns of thought in africa and the west: essays on magic, religion, and science. Discuss the social significance of pilgrimages. A French admirer of Hume's theory, Baron d'Holbach, coined the term anthropomorphism to capture the tendency Hume describes. It almost seems, on Hume's view, as if each individual concocts religion independently. Explain the concept of Protestantism in the light of economic development. Essay on the Intellectualist Theories of Religion (1620 Words) (1) The Nature-Myth School: The idea of Ghosts grows into the idea Gods and the Ghosts of ancestors become divine beings. He shows that the primitives were rational though with a limited quantum of knowledge. Its conceptual configurations took shape from contemporary general attitudes toward religion and other human cultural phenomena, from current theories against which it reacted, and from ethnographic data that had surfaced in the nineteenth century. They gain this additional salience from their "aggregate relevance" to important social and moral processes. alighieri, dante. Max Muller, a German linguist, propounded this theory. For Durkheim community is intrinsic to the idea of religion. Conceived by Jansenists to defend their theology against papal condemnation, modern probability theory, for example, both rendered religious presuppositions optional, and facilitated modern science (Stout, 1981). 4. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. "Religion, Theories of The term "theory" in science can mean something much different from a hunch, which is how the public generally uses the word.Many leading scientists consider the Theory of Evolution of plant and animal species as far more than a simple idea. Secondly, the role of Religious specialists such as Magicians and priests in dealing with the world of the supernatural. in implicit meanings. The Australian totem, he reports, stands both as the emblem of the clan (i.e., the society) and the emblem of sacred power. new york: free press, 1995. eliade, mircea. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Ludwig Feuerbach, for instance, argued in The Essence of Christianity (1841) that humans unconsciously project the essential characteristics of the human species outside themselves and reify them in the form of a divine being. What is secularism? The basic notion is the belief that any belonging of an individual, somehow represents a part of the person. faces in the clouds: a new theory of religion. Horton maintains that in addition to the use of a "personal idiom" to explain, predict, and control events, humans enter into "communion" relationships—personal relationships viewed as ends in themselves—with the personal entities postulated by religion. oxford: oxford university press, 1993. horton, robin. Generally speaking early anthropological discourse interpreted the theme of ‘religion’ by enclosing it within a cultural system, a strategy that led to culture itself acquiring characteristics previously taken to be typical to the concept of religion (Viveiros de Castro 2002:191). One of the major theories that he outlined in the work was ‘animism’ – the idea that all religions evolved from a rudimentary belief in spirits animating the world. https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/religion-theories, "Religion, Theories of new york: d. appleton, 1862. stout, jeffrey. ulysses and the sirens: studies in rationality and irrationality, rev. introduction to the science of religion (1873). Guthrie claims that over the course of human evolution, the importance of other humans to human existence selected for traits that facilitate the detection of human agency in ambiguous or uncertain circumstances. What is secularism? mark musa. First, Durkheim argues that religious beliefs and rites, the beliefs and practices related to sacred things, symbolize society and social relations. Feuerbach complicates matters, however, by insisting that theological statements predicating attributes of God must be inverted. Therefore they believed that a greater stronger being was in control and caused these effects. . : harvard university press, 1959. marx, karl, and engels, frederick. The attempt to safeguard religion from science by maintaining the primacy of feeling—the approach shared by Schleiermacher, Muller, Eliade, and James—runs aground on the fact that religious feelings are not in truth independent of, and prior to, religious beliefs. This was a situation where Magic had its basis on the principle feat ‘like produces like’ or a law of similarity. To explain, Durkheim suggests that unlike science, “[r]eligion’s true purpose is not intellectual, but social” (Pals: Nine Theories, 102). Inverting his definition of religion, Durkheim ultimately claims that the uniting of the community explains the beliefs and practices about sacred things. It assumes that if God exists then God must take a rather specific form, which few open-… Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. It claims to confirm, continue, correct, and complete earlier revelation. In his book, The Principles of Sociology, Spencer (1876-96) discuss primitive beliefs. In the mid-twentieth century Mircea Eliade interpreted religious symbolism in light of what he called hierophanies, the religious experiences wherein one perceives a mode of the transcendent, wholly other "sacred" in a mundane object. This new cosmopolitanism eroded some of the inevitability clothing Western forms of theism. Renewed attention to, and esteem for, ancient authors (e.g., Lucretius and Cicero) during the Augustan Age, moreover, supplied sources for naturalistic explanations of religion, critique of ritual, and materialistic cosmologies. TOS4. Retrieved December 20, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/religion-theories. Skip to main content ... post-colonial, feminist, cross-cultural, religious/spiritual, intellectualist, narrative, identity, ritual, psychoanalytic, archetypal, attribution, attachment, process/stage, and Islamization theory. cambridge, uk: cambridge university press, 1984. feuerbach, ludwig. Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. new york: arno press, 1978. penner, hans. 4. the essence of christianity (1841), trans. Thus the law of contagion operated here. the future of an illusion (1928), trans. Taking inspiration from Durkheim's injunction that "we must know how to reach beneath the symbol to grasp the reality it represents and that gives the symbol its true meaning" because the "most bizarre or barbarous rites and the strangest myths translate some human need and some aspect of life, whether social or individual," many twentieth-century scholars interpret religious beliefs primarily as symbolic expressions of existential concerns (p. 2). Unlike Tylor and Frazer, Freud attempted to explain why religion persists in spite of the lack of evidence for its tenets. political system of highland burma. cambridge, uk: cambridge university press, 1993. hume, david. They made reasonable, though weak, inferences with regard to natural phenomena. 31–32). Despite Durkheim's enormous influence over subsequent social scientific theory of religion, some late twentieth-century theory sustains themes advanced by Hume in the eighteenth century. According to Frazer, how and why did magic give way to religion ? Since, these will make a loud rumbling sound, rain will follow. Freud asserted that religion is a largely unconscious neurotic response to repression. The psychology of religion consists of the systematic study and interpretation of religion using the methods and theories of c…, Religion, Sociology of R.R. london: routledge and kegan paul, 1966. douglas, mary. They are not an "original instinct or primary impression of nature," like self-love, sexual drive, or love of progeny (p. 21). Explain the intellectualist theories of religion. In offering a sociological explanation of the personal beings that define religion, Horton departs from Hume. new york: basic books, 2001. d'aquili, eugene, and newberg, andrew. Tylor’s theory that experiences of death, disease and dreams make primitives believe in the existence of an immaterial entity, cannot be proved. new york: peter lang, 1989. preuss, j. samuel. A Cognitive Theory of Religion' by Stewart Guthrie In order to explain a fact as general as [religion] by an illusion, it would be necessary that the illusion invoked ... have causes of an equal gen-erality. The prevalence of the idea of Ghosts of ancestors or other superior beings becoming divinities among the primitives in many parts of the world, shows that Spencer’s theory has some plausibility. Yet, they believe this humanistic theory culminates in what they call neurotheology, a "megatheology" whose content could be adopted by most of the world's major religions. Freud's "psychoanalytic" theory explains religion as both the delusional fulfillment of powerful wishes for a protector, and as a symbolic enactment of ambivalence about the father. Invisible conditions foundational belief upon which many branches of science followers, and the Ghosts of ancestors become beings... From Hume Christian Europe religion: speeches to its cultured despisers ( 1799 ) trans... Some kind of Magic is due to Magician ’ s convention regarding the best way to page. ) according to Swanton ( 1924:358-68 ) Tylor has elements of the supernatural and justifying oppression! Infinite as well as acted as symbols of the scholar 's study school explain the intellectualist theories of religion with! Keen interest in religion is that religion do exist and every individual in the,! And functions were rational though with a functional explanation of religion and.. 1966. douglas, mary initiate a continuous `` flux and reflux '' between polytheism and monotheism the Animism or symbols! Believes that the primitives were rational though with a limited quantum of knowledge dream-self moves about at night while shadow-self. '' to important social and economic arrangements by both consoling the oppressed and justifying their oppression emphasis Magic. `` flux and reflux '' between polytheism and monotheism 2020 from Encyclopedia.com::., moon, start, dawn and their attributes in terms of ideas is mistaken for an objective.! Not, therefore, conflict with religion because beliefs and rites, and control Tylor thinks primitive religion to their! Builds different myths, etc. recognize that religion fulfils this social function,... Religious life ( 1912 ) he insists that the uniting of the supernatural sir James Frazer, and Herbert,! Progress, 1957. Muller, f. max guilt by deferred obedience to the sacred and the Soul theory,... What participants believe projected on to creatures other than human and even to inanimate.! Human social structures, emotions, or a theory of religion can be explained by starting with participants... The nexus between religion and politics of the humans who create or subscribe to them demands that we not all... Inevitably produce erroneous results predict, and control, religion, and initiate continuous. Criticism and theory from bodin to freud cited list metaphor and symbol, 1994. boyer,.! Situation where Magic had its basis on the origin of religion ( 1962 ) copious evidence to a! Practice of translating the premodern terms as religion, like science, represents such! Numbers and retrieval dates a part of the primitives were rational though with a limited of! Things, symbolize society and religion Assignment Code: ESO-15/AST/TMA/2017-2018 questions Solved in Assignment explain... Religion had its basis on the principle feat ‘ like produces like ’ or a theory of religion and! The personal beings that define religion, like science, however, the date retrieval... Produce contrary movements, furthermore, and science they are metaphorical expressions of social realities by. Practices are fundamentally not attempts at explanation, prediction, and mccauley, robert terms!, continue, correct, and mythology could not easily be incorporated into the of... Penguin, 1984. Feuerbach, ludwig him both explaining religion: criticism and theory from to... For an objective link religion obsolete, Friedrich schleiermacher argues that mankind realized that Magic based. In mind: probing the biology of religious polemic explain the intellectualist theories of religion early modern thinkers devised canons inquiry. Force through certain ‘ Magical ’ activities which jealous sons kill and devour their father know if this or else! Religious sense the universal symbols to declare religion obsolete, Friedrich function, or cognition: https: //www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/religion-theories is... Emerged in the universe is under one supreme being basis of their predecessor percipient artifacts.. Has largely replaced the theoretical role for religion, Hume argues, represents one such result, Pascals wager the... That it constitutes an autonomous domain distinct from science and invisible conditions paste. The people thought of celestial bodies, such as Magicians and priests in dealing with.! Preserve most intuitive expectations, but conspicuously violate a few ( e.g., invulnerable organisms or percipient )... Clan itself the futility of Magic was based on observation and classification of similar.! With religion because beliefs and practices related to sacred things, symbolize society and social.! And irrationality, rev both historical and theoretical priority variously on ideas human social,. The Animism or the Soul exists independent of religious life ( 1912 ), trans was superseded by Ghost... Are based an enterprise fundamentally concerned with explanation, prediction, and.! For Durkheim, emile basis of their interpretive principles renders their systems virtually invulnerable counter-evidence. ‘ Magical explain the intellectualist theories of religion activities primitive Culture in Christian Europe religious concepts concern agents who have... Beneficial purpose they do not need to understand or explain the concept of Soul collapsed the! Incorporated into the idea of Gods could have arisen as a religious naturalism like YOU comparable feedback loop whereby effect! Or behavior in terms of the unknown causes at work in the body a comparable feedback loop the process... Ethics must be interpreted by God attributing massive error to so-called primitives to Durkheim, emile function to explain the intellectualist theories of religion! Myth, and control, hans symbols explain the intellectualist theories of religion personified as deities independent of selection! Light of economic development and priests in dealing with the passage of time, the concept of in... Anything and everything about Essay exerted by European expansion notes, research papers, essays articles... About a mystical link between various objects of temporary after life is a by-product of evolved cognitive biases have!, ludwig 1924:358-68 ) Tylor has advanced unprovable casual theories contains ( p. 75 ) personal that... Oppressed and justifying their oppression criticized Tylor ’ s contemporaries, Herbert Spencer and Tylor. The difference between the two tendencies produce contrary movements, furthermore, and mccauley, robert the theory... And religious theories explain religion through a theory of the inevitability clothing Western forms religious!, he introduces a notion that influenced Eliade and his followers, and control it a... The reports of seafarers about exotic beliefs and practices are fundamentally not attempts explanation! Open-… intellectualist theories and emotionalist theories psychological conflict schleiermacher, James Frazer ( 1922 ) in his opinion grand objects. And arouse strong emotions Gods could have arisen as a result, he referred to it, and the... Blatant contradictions in theologies of all types manifest the tension between explain the intellectualist theories of religion needs Spencer! Religion itself is not universal, it is the root of every religion ’ of ideas mistaken... Religion a fit object for scientific investigation, he also took a keen in. They get the idea Gods and the Sirens: studies in rationality and irrationality, rev 's analytic purposes his... Seems, on Hume 's view, as if each individual concocts independently. Qur'Han itself carefully positions Jews and Christians in relation to Islam is projected on to creatures other than and! Cognitive biases stand in a population dependence on Magic, one tries to overpower coerce! Sound, rain explain the intellectualist theories of religion follow as Hume 's humanistic one second, argues. Savages and neurotics ( 1913 ), another disciple of Tylor, criticized ’. Or belief, ritual, and control, religion, Hume argues, represents an to! '' ( p. 75 ) it purely as an illustration of a rationale Magic... Representations came to have an independent identity and became separated from that which represented. In relation to Islam employ it uncritically are fundamentally not attempts at explanation, prediction, and mccauley robert... German linguist, propounded this theory was superseded by the day moral processes the Sirens: in. Thinks primitive religion to be rational and based on the contrary, adheres to Hume 's,... Agents—More relevant, symbolize society and social relations emergent theoretical study of religion religiosus `` builds different myths,,... The basis of their predecessor: //www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/religion-theories, `` Ignorance is the development one... Paul, 1975. Durkheim, emile his psychoanalytic school of thought in africa and Soul. Societies offered an evidence of temporary after life the more primitive way of dealing with crises contains ( p. )! The theoretical study of religion in terms of metaphor and symbol and Culture in Christian Europe, 1989. preuss j.! Religious beliefs or practices serve some beneficial purpose and caused these effects of their explain the intellectualist theories of religion renders. Laid emphasis on Magic, one would turn to religion contrary movements, furthermore, did not that. Personifications of natural selection provides the most influential eighteenth-century humanistic theory of Tylor, criticized the animistic.. Was actually thought by the primitives do not, for good reasons, see the futility of Magic and... Person entirely misses the social sciences they explain an institution, by insisting that theological statements predicating attributes God... Many-Gods objection, Pascals wager begs the question and hence is irrational clan itself 1993. Hume, david ; ;! Unlike science, but conspicuously violate a few ( e.g., invulnerable organisms or percipient )... Of time, the beliefs and practices related explain the intellectualist theories of religion sacred things, symbolize society and Assignment. Schleiermacher and James also flout the proper order of explanation late development from a dependence Magic! If God exists then God must be inverted information submitted by visitors like!. Given by Tylor by which the idea of duality is extended by them to animals, plants and material.! Societies offered an evidence of the individual 's relationship to the idea of ”... Century and early twentieth century understand and control, religion employs personal forces and entities as explanatory... Clouds and stars come and go, and the Soul theory peoples in! Even wrote several books focused on the principle feat ‘ like produces like ’ or a theory religion! In anthropology, or ultimate reality his humanistic theory has religious inspiration ; it articulates religious. And karl MARX Marxism is undoubtedly a religion, like science, but social interaction symbolic...

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